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Non Destructive Testing

Of all the applications of industrial ultrasonic testing, flaw detection is the oldest and the most common.
Since the 1940s, the laws of physics that govern the propagation of sound waves through solid materials have been used to detect hidden cracks, voids, porosity, and other internal discontinuities in metals, composites, plastics, and ceramics.

High frequency sound waves reflect from flaws in predictable ways, producing distinctive echo patterns that can be displayed and recorded by portable instruments. Ultrasonic testing is completely nondestructive and safe, and it is a well established test method in many basic manufacturing, process, and service industries, especially in applications involving welds and structural metals.

This paper provides a brief introduction to the theory and practice of ultrasonic flaw detection. It is intended only as an overview of the topic. Additional detailed information may be found in the references listed at the end.